Beyond Left & Right: Toward A New Transpartisan Politics

In today’s post-partisan world, left-right, liberal-conservative, Republican-Democrat lack useful significance in describing a complete picture of contemporary politics. These 19th century shopworn terms fail to include a new large post-partisan demographic which is emerging and has yet to find a polity truly expressive of its interests.

This new demographic can be characterized as beyond the stale and often meaningless terms left and right. They are socially expansive in that they look to create and participate in new communities that transcend but include conventional boundaries. That means they see value in tradition and conventions but are not limited by them. They seek community life and are willing to try new roles out within those communities but not at the expense of their own selves. They seek decisions being taken by consensus (i.e. democratically), but are not willing to lose their own sense of self or their rights.

They are ecologically sensitive and personally experimental. They care about their environment and their own health. Personally experimental refers to their willingness to play with their own consciousness, social roles and conventional rules.

Another reason this group of people can be considered beyond left and right is that their critique of power consists of both those from the traditional American left and the old right. They are concerned with all forms of concentrated power and authority. Government bothers them as much as transnational corporations. They look askance at the media, consumer culture, government propaganda, authoritarian religious institutions, and our so-called educational systems.

These post-partisan people are also called transpartisan because they see the value in partisan worldviews but do not limit themselves to any particular value set within a partisan system. For instance, they see the importance to a lot of people of traditional religion and although they might not be so inclined to believe and live the same way, they do not seek to destroy or denigrate people’s conservative religious beliefs. It is a live and let live mindset within the boundaries of individual rights and persuasion.

The transpartisan mindset allows for greater cooperation between what appears to be conflicting worldviews. Basically, people who are transpartisan can and do play well with others. They are willing and quite able to form political and social coalitions to solve immediate and long term problems. You can find them in many of the alternative cultural movements like home-schooling, integrative medicine, and organic food cooperatives, while at the same time living and participating in the conventional world.

They are setting the stage for a new political movement, which neither major party can, at this time, appreciate. And no minor political party can see this due to their ideological-purity blinders. More and more people are joining this group but, unfortunately, many still limit themselves with traditional party affiliations and inconsistencies in their politics. What I mean by the latter is that although they are experimental in their private lives and in many cases their community lives, they have not translated that mindset to their politics.

If they come from the left, then they might still favor one-size-fits-all programs and projects which actually denies human uniqueness, innovation, creativity and community diversity. If they come from the right, they might see corporate structure i.e. private power as the only means of organizing business life. This can deny human creativity and the importance of social relations and community values.

In time, the limits of the earlier partisan mindsets whether left or right will be transcended and the inconsistencies mentioned above will be reduced. The transpartisan mindset will help to create new cultures, new institutions and new ways of being in the world. This in turn will then reverberate in our body politics by changing the dynamics from a limited and narrow spectrum of discussion, belief, and action to much broader possibilities. It will help to move the power and decision-making from an elite group of technocrats, plutocrats and bureaucrats over towards individuals and communities.

Michael D. Ostrolenk is a Senior Editor of the Free Liberal.

Third Conference on Democracy in America

Third Conference on Democracy in America, September 2007

Tuesday, 2007, September 18 – 6:00pm – Friday, 2007, September 21 – 12:00pm

Aspen Wye River, Queenstown, Maryland September 18-21, 2007

Engage a small group of leaders and experts from across the political spectrum in authentic dialogue about shared values, areas of mutual concern and transpartisan alignment.
Confirmed participants thus far:

Peter Gemma, Senior Advisor, American Conservative Defense Alliance
Grover Norquist, President, Americans for Tax Reform
Carolyn Lukensmeyer, President, AmericaSpeaks
Alan Khazei, Founder, Be the Change
David Korten, Board Member, Business Alliance for Local Living Economies
Roger Hickey, Co-director, Campaign for America’s Future
Michele Combs, Communications Director, Christian Coalition
Dave Keating, Executive Director, Club for Growth
Nancy Ross, Political Director, Committee for a Unified Independent Party
Jodie Evans, Founder, Codepink Women for Peace
Matt Leighninger, Executive Director, Deliberative Democracy Consortium
Jim Babka, President,
Robert Richie, Executive Director,
Joshua Gorman, Founder, Generation Waking Up
Brent McMillian, Political Director, Green Party
Lawry Chickering, Research Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Kathy Partridge, Executive Director, Interfaith Funders
Nancy Tate, Executive Director, League of Women Voters
Shane Cory, Executive Director, Libertarian National Committee
Michael Ostrolenk, Founder, Liberty Coalition
Scott Heiferman, Co-Founder,
Maya Enista, COO, Mobilizing America’s Youth
Jeff Weissglass, Former Chairman, More Than Money
Debbie Hopper, Founder, Mothers Against the Draft
Eli Pariser, Executive Director,
Sandy Heierbacher, Director, National Coalition for Dialogue and Delib.
Jackie Johnson, Executive Director, National Congress of American Indians
John Briscoe, Director of Dev., National Council of Churches USA
Patrice McDermott, Director,
Bill Westmiller, Chairman, Republican Liberty Caucus
Bob Barr, Chairman, Patriots to Restore Checks and Balances
Marianne Williamson, Chair, Peace Alliance
John Sirek, President, Philanthropy for Active Civic Engagement
Robert Fuller, Author, Sombodies and Nobodies
Paul Loeb, Author, Soul of a Citizen
John Esterle, Executive Director, Whitman Institute
Juanita Brown, Founder, World Café


Mark Gerzon, President, Mediators Foundation
Donna Zajonc, Author, Politics of Hope
Joseph McCormick, Co-founder, Reuniting America
John Steiner, Chair, Exec. Cmte., Reuniting America
Ana Micka, Co-director, Reuniting America
Debilyn Molinaeux, Event Coordinator, Reuniting America
Peter Hwosch, Filmmaker, Hwosch Productions
Chris Bui, Founder, 5th Medium I.C. (the American Focus Program)

Michael Bloomberg Sees the Light

I’m so excited to see New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg register as unaffiliated. It demonstrates that individuals from all walks of life are facing the cold hard facts. As Bloomberg said on Monday, “The politics of partisanship and the resulting inaction and excuses have paralyzed decision-making, primarily at the federal level, and the big issues of the day are not being addressed, leaving our future in jeopardy.”

It’s time we face the truth – across the country more and more people are fed-up with partisan politics. Voter participation is at an all time low. From coast to coast many people feel as though their voice and vote don’t matter. With more than 38 percent of active voters identifying as

Independents/unaffiliated it’s time we begin to understand and turn to face the change.
Whether or not Mayor Bloomberg runs for President, the mere fact that he’s registered as unaffiliated underscores the message sent by thousands of people across the country that their call for change be heard.

The key to success in the 2008 elections will not be the monotonous drum beat of partisan politics. Rather it’s who can inspire and motivate hundreds and thousands of voters to participate in our democracy and turn out to the polls to vote FOR someone.

People are looking for a fresh perspective — one that does not point the finger or blame another group of people for the economic and social failures within our broken system of government.
People are seeking someone who believes in addressing these fundamental problems with real solutions and not just applying a band-aid.

I know from listening to many, many people that the time for change is now. I trust those people, I agree with those people.

It’s time for true representation.

Finding ways to work together is the only road to real solutions. It’s time to breath new life into our democracy and it’s time to bring the power of our voices back into governing our country.

Annie Loyd
Independent, Candidate – US Congress, Arizona District 3

Annie Loyd for Congress Campaign Overview

“As we look to the elections in November of 2008 we can say beyond a doubt – we have lost our way . . . It is time for a big change. We have all witnessed the awful effects that violence and the poverty of spirit, bring to our communities both locally and globally. It is time for competent, common sense leadership and that is why I, Annie Loyd, made the decision to run for Congress as an Independent in Arizona’s U. S. Congressional District 3.

I’m a registered Independent because in the more than 20 years I’ve worked in politics, I’ve witnessed time and time and time again, that good people’s voices are not being heard, not being recognized, not being acknowledged, not being utilized, not being called on.

I’m a registered Independent because our voices matter and our call for change haven’t been heard. As Americans, we have a Constitution that is designed to protect our voice, the voice of the people. However, in order for our voices to be heard we must first speak.

We have an opportunity – at this time in our country’s history – to make history and begin a powerful movement of change. We have an opportunity to catalyze thousands of voters that believe neither party is representing their interests and are desperate for new a vision. We have an opportunity to create a vision that looks to our future and considers the impact of our decisions on future generations.

Together – we can do it! I am convinced we can and will inspire hope within our community demonstrating throughout the campaign that there is a different way to do politics – The Annie Loyd for Congress campaign is setting a different standard for political campaigns with a focus on door to door communication and engaging with the people in the district, with the inspiring message of Together – we can do it.

As a direct result of talking to hundreds of people we, the Annie Loyd for Congress campaign, know the politics of – involving negative campaign ad’s, endless robo-calls and sound bite messages – has created disengagement with the voters and dissuaded many from voting at all.
America stands for Independence. Arizona embodies the Independent American. America represents the power of the people upholding liberty, justice and freedom for all. We have the responsibility to ensure our voices are heard. Too many times I’ve heard: I’m not voting — it doesn’t make a difference – the time for a new way is now.

The Annie Loyd for Congress campaign is committed to delivering a message of information that inspires and engages and that educates and empowers the people of Congressional District 3 in Arizona to work together to create the new paradigm of politics – the art of possibilities; the change we all so desire.

The time is now for courageous leadership with a vision for the future and a desire and willingness to move us forward restoring our ability to be an effective leader throughout the world, starting with immediately addressing issues right here at home.
I believe in leaders who take action, leaders who engage and inspire us, and leaders who encourage us to speak out and who listen to our voices.
The campaign is hosting and attending house party after house party and participating in a multitude of community events, meetings, and activities. The success of this campaign is based in the knowing that people want and need to have their voice heard and know their vote matters. We want and need your active participation.
The voter registration in Arizona Congressional District 3 is a strong mix of independently minded people ready to create change. To successful create this desired change we knew it was imperative to build this campaign on a solid foundation. We have attracted, what I believe to be, the best people in their areas of expertise to work and guide this campaign. Because of excellent research, compiled by our team, we know the trends nationally and locally and by the November 2008 election there will be more registered Independents in Arizona Congressional District 3 than Democrats. We know voters are disgusted with partisan politics, we know how to win this race. As a former athlete I believe it is part of human nature to know and believe you are on the winning team.
Together – our team is the winning team. Together – we can do it!While the antiquated political parties continue to be mired in the politics of the past we have our pulse on the people in our community and are answering their call. We have redefined politics as the art of possibilities encompassing:
A – Accountability
R – Responsibility
T – Transparency
Is this not what we have all been asking for – for such a long time?! In the famous words of John F. Kennedy, “ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”
I would not be entering into this race if I didn’t believe it was possible to win. I believe our actions, throughout the campaign, will reflect our message of inclusivity, civic participation and the transformation of this existing brutal political campaign climate.
Join the winning team and engage in politics – the art of possibilities.
Working together – we are the winning team! Annie Loyd

FEC Won’t Regulate Political Blogging

WASHINGTON — DailyKos, an influential political Web site that serves as a virtual bulletin board for liberals, qualifies as a media entity exempt from federal campaign finance regulations, the Federal Election Commission said Tuesday.

The FEC said the Web site, operated by blogger Markos Moulitsas Zuniga, cannot be regulated as a political committee and can freely post blog entries that support candidates.

DailyKos, an influential political Web site that serves as a virtual bulletin board for liberals, qualifies as a media entity exempt from federal campaign finance regulations, the Federal Election Commission said Tuesday.

Conservative blogger John C.A. Bambenek had argued in a complaint last month that the site should comply with campaign finance laws because such entries amounted to “a gift of free advertising and candidate media services.”

The FEC disagreed.

“While the complaint asserts that DailyKos advocates for the election of Democrats for federal office, the commission has repeatedly stated that an entity that would otherwise qualify for the media exemption does not lose its eligibility because it features news or commentary lacking objectivity or expressly advocates in its editorial the election or defeat of a federal candidate,” the FEC said.

The commission also rejected a complaint by Rep. Mary Bono, R-Calif., alleging that her 2006 Democratic opponent, David Roth, coordinated efforts with a blogger to advocate her defeat in the November 2006 general election. Bono won.

The FEC said the blogger, Michael L. Grace, acted in the capacity of a volunteer and his blogging efforts did not constitute an “in-kind service” subject to financial disclosure rules.

My Civic Ancestry – Charles Carroll of Carrollton

My great, great, great uncle on my Father’s Mother’s side of the family was Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19, 1737November 14, 1832) was a lawyer and politician from Maryland who was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later a United States Senator. He was the last surviving and only Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence.


He was born on September 19, 1737 at Annapolis, Maryland, the son of Charles Carroll of Annapolis (1702–1800) (his grandfather was Irish Daniel Carroll) and Elizabeth (Brooke) Carroll. His reputed attendance at the Jesuit preparatory school at Bohemia in Cecil County cannot be confirmed from contemporary records, and he may have been schooled at home before departing for Europe, where he attended the College of St. Omer in France, and graduated from the College of Louis the Grand in 1755. He continued his studies in Europe, and read for the law in London before returning to Annapolis in 1765.
Charles Carroll of Annapolis granted Carrollton Manor to his son, Charles Carroll of Carrollton. It is from this tract of land that he took his title, “Charles Carroll of Carrollton.”
Carroll was a voice for independence in Maryland. In 1772 he engaged in a debate conducted through anonymous newspaper letters and maintained the right of the colonies to control their own taxation. As a Roman Catholic, he was barred from entering politics, practicing law, and voting. However, writing in the Maryland Gazette under the pseudonym “First Citizen,” he became a prominent spokesman against the governor’s proclamation increasing legal fees to state officers and Protestant clergy. Carroll served on various committees of correspondence.[1]
He was commissioned with Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase in February 1774 to seek aid from Canada.[1] He was a member of Annapolis’ first Committee of Safety in 1775. In early 1776, while not yet a member, the Congress sent him on a mission to Canada. When Maryland decided to support the open revolution, he was elected to the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, and remained a delegate until 1778. He arrived too late to vote in favor of it, but was able to sign the Declaration of Independence.
His signature reads “Charles Carroll of Carrollton,” which is why he has gone down in history this way. At the time he was one of the richest men in America. As he signed, an observer stated “There go a few millions.” Throughout his term in Congress, he served on the board of war.
Carroll returned to Maryland in 1778 to assist in the drafting of a constitution and forming a state government. Carroll was re-elected to the Continental Congress in 1780, but he declined. He was elected to the state senate in 1781 and served there continuously until 1800.
When the United States government was created, the Maryland legislature elected him to the first United States Senate. In 1792 Maryland passed a law that prohibited any man from serving in the State and national legislatures at the same time. Since he preferred to be in the Maryland Senate, he resigned from the U. S. Senate on November 30, 1792.
Carroll retired from public life in 1801. After Thomas Jefferson became president, he had great anxiety about political activity, and was not sympathetic to the War of 1812. After both Jefferson and Adams died on July 4, 1826, he became the only surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. He came out of retirement to help create the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1827. His last public act, on July 4, 1828, was the laying of the cornerstone of the B&O’s Carrollton Viaduct, named in his honor and still in use today.[2] He died on November 14, 1832 in Baltimore, and is buried in his Doughoregan Manor Chapel at Ellicott City, Maryland.
Carroll funded the building of what is known today as Homewood House, a 140 acre (570,000 m²) estate in northern Baltimore, Maryland as a wedding gift to his son, Charles Jr. and Harriet Chew. Charles Jr. then oversaw the design and construction of the house, which began construction in 1801 and had mostly finished by 1808. Research shows that he incorporated suggestions from his wife. It took five years to build and cost $40,000, four times the budgeted expense. The house never really fulfilled any of their expectations, as it did nothing to cure Charles Jr.’s idleness and alcoholism or prevent the couple from separating years later.
Homewood was donated to Johns Hopkins University in 1876 and later became its main campus. Today, Johns Hopkins operates Homewood House as a museum, and its beautiful Georgian architecture serves as the inspiration for the Hopkins’ architecture.

[edit] Monuments and memorials

The bronze statue located in the Hall of Columns in the United States Capitol
Named in his honor are counties in Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, Ohio, and Virginia, as well as East and West Carroll Parishes, Louisiana. Also named for him is the Carroll Gardens neighborhood in Brooklyn; as well as the city of New Carrollton, home to Charles Carroll Middle School.
In 1903 the state of Maryland added a bronze statue to the United States Capitol‘s National Statuary Hall Collection. It is located in the Hall of Columns. [1]
In 1906, the University of Notre Dame constructed what is now known as Carroll Hall, a residence hall named after Charles Carroll.

[edit] Family life
Charles of Carrollton’s grandfather, Charles Carroll known as Charles Carroll the Settler, was an Irishman from Littemourna, who was a clerk in the office of Lord Powis [3]. Around the year 1659 [4], during the reign of King James II, he emigrated from England to America, thus establishing one of the most influential families in American politics. [5]
Charles’ sole son was born in 1702 and named Charles. To distinguish himself from his father he was known as Charles Carroll of Annapolis [6], but is not to be confused with his son of the same name (the subject of this article).
Charles married Mary Darnall, known as Molly, on June 5, 1768. They had seven children before Molly died in 1782, but only three survived infancy: Mary, Charles Jr., and Kitty. Mary married to Richard Caton. From 1820 to 1832, Carroll would winter with the Catons in Baltimore. Charles Jr. (sometimes known as Charles Carroll of Homewood because he oversaw its design and construction) married Harriet Chew and lived in Philadelphia. Harriet was the daughter of Benjamin Chew, the chief justice of Pennsylvania, and her sister married John Eager Howard who had served in the Senate with Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Charles Jr. was an alcoholic who reportedly consumed up to two quarts of brandy a day. This led to erratic behavior that resulted in his separation from Harriet.
Today, Carroll’s descendants own the largest parcel of land in Howard County, Maryland, with over 1000 acres (4 km²) of valuable, but historically preserved land in Ellicott City, Maryland.

[edit] Carroll in Fiction
Charles Carroll was portrayed by actor Terrence Currier in the 2004 film National Treasure starring Nicolas Cage. He is accurately described as the last living signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll is inaccurately described as a Freemason in the film; Catholics are not permitted to be Freemasons by the Church (although Catholics are not prohibited by the Freemasons from joining). Also, although the film does not explicitly state it, it is implied that Carroll died in Washington, D.C.[7] A scene which did not make the final cut of the film (but appears as a deleted scene on the DVD) shows then-President Jackson rushing out of the White House to find Carroll’s body in a carriage.

[edit] Carroll’s signature
In the 1940s, newspaper journalist John Hix’s syndicated column “Strange As It Seems” published an interesting (though unverified) explanation for Charles Carroll’s distinctive signature on the Declaration of Independence. Every member of the Continental Congress who signed this document automatically became a criminal, guilty of sedition against King George III. Carroll, because of his wealth, had more to lose than most of his companions. Some of the signators, such as Caesar Rodney and Button Gwinnett, had unusual and distinctive names which would clearly identify them to the King; other signators, with more commonplace names, might hope to sign the Declaration without incriminating themselves.
According to Hix, when it was Carroll’s turn to sign the Declaration of Independence, he rose, went to John Hancock‘s desk where the document rested, signed his name “Charles Carroll” and returned to his seat. At this point another member of the Continental Congress, who was prejudiced against Carroll because of his Catholicism, commented that Carroll risked nothing in signing the document, as there must be many men named Charles Carroll in the colonies, and so the King would be unlikely to order Carroll’s arrest without clear proof that he was the same Charles Carroll who had signed the Declaration. Carroll immediately returned to Hancock’s desk, seized the pen again, and added “of Carrollton” to his name.
However, some believe that Carroll was using the “of Carrollton” suffix signature at least as early as September 15, 1765, in a letter written to a friend in England. [8]

[edit] References
^ a b c
^ J.E. Hagerty. Catholic Encyclopedia: Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
^ Christopher Plummer (playing John Adams Gates). (2004). National Treasure. Scene occurs at 00:01:54.
^ Hoffman, Ronald, Sally D. Mason and Eleanor S. Darcy, Eds. Dear Papa, Dear Charley: Vol. I, p. 375. Chapel Hill, NC. The University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

[edit] Further reading
Hoffman, Ronald, in collaboration with Sally D. Mason. Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland: A Carroll Saga, 1500-1782. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

[edit] See also
Carrollton Manor

[edit] External links
Carroll’s Congressional Biography
A Moment in Time Archives: Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Homewood House Museum
Appleton’s Biography edited by Stanley L. Klos
Research into Homewood House
Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856
The winter home of Charles Carroll
Preceded byMatthew Tilghman
President of the Maryland State Senate1783
Succeeded byDaniel Carroll
Preceded byDaniel Carroll
President of the Maryland State Senate1783
Succeeded byGeorge Plater
Preceded byNone
United States Senator (Class 1) from Maryland1789–1792Served alongside: John Henry
Succeeded byRichard Potts
Preceded byThomas Sumter
Oldest living U.S. SenatorJune 1, 1832November 14, 1832
Succeeded byPaine Wingate
vdeSignatories of the Declaration of Independence
J. AdamsS. AdamsBartlettBraxton • Carroll of Carrollton • ChaseClarkClymerElleryFloydFranklinGerryGwinnettHallHancockHarrisonHartHewesHeywardHooperHopkinsHopkinsonHuntingtonJeffersonF. L. LeeR. H. LeeLewisLivingstonLynchMcKeanMiddletonL. MorrisR. MorrisMortonNelsonPacaPennPaineReadRodneyRossRushRutledgeShermanSmithStocktonStoneTaylorThorntonWaltonWhippleWilliamsWilsonWitherspoonWolcottWythe

Transpartisan Defined

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Transpartisanship represents an emerging field in political thought distinct from
bipartisanship, which aims to negotiate between “right” and “left,” resulting in a dualistic perspective, and nonpartisanship, which tends to avoid political affiliation altogether. Rather, transpartisanship acknowledges the validity of truths across a range of political perspectives and seeks to synthesize them into an inclusive, pragmatic container beyond typical political dualities.
In practice, transpartisan solutions emerge out of a new kind of public conversation that moves beyond polarization by applying proven methods of facilitated dialogue, deliberation and conflict resolution. In this way it is possible to achieve the ideal of a democratic republic by integrating the values of a democracy — freedom, equality, and a regard for the common good, with the values of a republic — order, responsibility and security.
Current examples of transpartisan initiatives include
Reuniting America, Liberty Coalition, and the emerging
An excerpt from on “transpartisanship”:
Transpartisanship is an emerging field that advocates pragmatic and effective solutions to social and political problems, transcending and including preexisting political ideologies. Transpartisanship encompasses the idea that all systems are inextricably interconnected, and that successful outcomes can best be reached through inclusive, genuine, and respectful cooperation. Transpartisan democracy, in part, seeks to reintegrate the public’s voice in identifying, debating, and shaping governmental policies, while continuing to protect the sovereignty of the individual.
The term “Transpartisanship” has emerged to provide a meaningful alternative to “Bipartisanship,” and “Nonpartisanship.” Bipartisanship limits the dialogue process to two political viewpoints or entities, striving for compromise solutions. Nonpartisanship, on the other hand, tends to deny the existence of differing viewpoints in exchange for cooperation. Both the bipartisan and nonpartisan approaches can discount the multiplicity of viewpoints that exist, which often results in incomplete and therefore unsuccessful outcomes. In contrast to these, transpartisanship recognizes the existence and validity of many points of view, and advocates a constructive dialogue aimed at arriving at creative, integrated, and therefore, breakthrough solutions that meet the needs of all present.
A close relative of transpartisanship is
Integral politics. A transpartisan approach to policy would necessarily include individual and collective, as well as subjective and objective, perspective. Furthermore, similar to Integral theory, transpartisanship places politics in a developmental context, viewing democracy and prosperity not as static attainments, but rather emergent properties along a continuum of developmental stages.

[edit] External links
Bipartisan vs. Transpartisan: And the Winner Is? An essay by Dr. Don Beck.
The Free Liberal: The Importance of Transpartisanship in Politics Today
Reuniting America
Liberty Coalition
Retrieved from “
Category: Politics